Ki eshm'rah Shabbat E-l yishm'reni Ot hi l'olmei ad beino uveini
Just as I keep Shabbat, G-d will keep me. It is a symbol for all eternity between Him and me.
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This may be compared to a king who made a gift of an orchard to his friend. Some time later he found that he had to cut down five beams in it. Said he: Although it was mine, and it was I who gave it to my friend, it is not right for me to cut down anything in it without cousulting him. Similarly, when Avraham went up to Eretz Yisrael, the Holy One, Baruch Hu, told him: "Raise now your eyes and look out from where you are: northward, southward, eastward and westward. For all the land that you see, to you will I give it..." (Bereishit 13:14-15). Therefore when He desired to destroy these five cities, Sedom, 'Amorah, Admah, Tzevoyim and Lasha, which according to tradition, were also destroyed, He declared, "I cannot destroy them without Avraham's knoweldge." Hence when He was actually about to overthrow them He took counsel with him, as our text states.
The Almighty informs the tzaddikim in advance so that they may call the rashim to do teshuvah and thereby avert their decreed punishment. Also, to leave no loophole for any complaint that He punishes unjustly.
If the Holy One, whose acts are truth and whose ways are just, does not execute His intentions before revealing them to the tzaddikim, so that men may have no possiblity of censuring His acts; how much more mere mortals take care that their actions give no grounds for the spreading of evil reports about them. Thus it is written, "And you shall be clean before HaShem and before Yisrael" (BaMidbar 32:22). (Zohar 1, 104b)